This year marks the twelfth year of the publication. Since last year the study also includes a new sub-indicator — the post-filing index that measures the process of claiming a Value-Added Tax refund and going through a corporate income tax audit. These two processes are based on four components—time to comply with a VAT refund hourstime to obtain a VAT refund weekstime to comply with the correction of an inadvertent corporate income tax error and deal with any resulting tax audit hours and the time to complete a corporate income tax audit if required weeks.
There is clearly also a values-based case for gender equality: Gender equality is thus fundamental to whether and how societies thrive. The graphs confirm a correlation between gender equality and GDP per capita, the level of competitiveness and human development.
The correlation is evident despite the fact that the Global Gender Gap Index unlike other gender indexes explicitly eliminates any direct impact of the absolute levels of any of the indicators used in the Index e. For each of these areas, there are economic or societal gains from increased gender parity.
This section summarizes some of the key research findings on the broader economic and societal case for gender equality. Similarly, closing the inactivity rate between girls and boys would also increase GDP by up to 5. Similar to education, investing in health and specifically in maternal, newborn and child health has a multiplier effect.
Research has found that inequality is lower in countries where more women have been engaged in public life. The breadth of issues women tend to advocate and prioritize investments on, have broader societal implications relating to family life, health and education, thereby fostering greater credibility in institutions and producing more democratic outcomes.
According to one study, greater female participation in the U. As women become more economically independent, they also become more significant consumers of goods and services, including for the majority of purchasing decisions of the household.
Research has also shown that women are more likely than men to invest a larger proportion of their household income to the education and health of their children.
As they begin to take up half of entry-level positions in several industries—in several OECD countries, for example—it is a loss for companies if these highly skilled women are forced to choose between work and family at later stages of their career. More diverse leadership teams can cater to a broader array of stakeholder needs and concerns.
In nearly of these countries, women make up the majority of those in tertiary education. The data reveals four broad groups of countries: These countries have not, however, fully closed economic and participation gaps—in particular, the gaps in senior positions, wages and leadership levels still persist.
The third group contains countries such as Yemen, Pakistan, India, and Mauritania that have large education as well as economic gender gaps. The fourth group contains countries such as Guinea, Chad, Mozambique and Burundi, which have large education gender gaps but small economic ones, primarily due to high levels of participation by women in low-skilled work.
Compared with the third group, women in these countries have greater access to income and decision-making. In countries where it is relatively easy for women to combine work with having children, female employment and female fertility both tend to be higher.
Policies that allow women to combine work and family may thus play a role in addressing the future problems posed by ageing populations.TDR, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, is a global programme of scientific collaboration that helps facilitate, support and influence efforts to combat diseases of poverty.
A seed bank (also seedbank or seeds bank) stores seeds to preserve genetic diversity; hence it is a type of gene alphabetnyc.com are many reasons to store seeds. One is to have available the genes that plant breeders need to increase yield, disease resistance, drought tolerance, nutritional quality, taste, etc.
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The World Bank currently funds GBV projects in only three countries--DRC, Cote D‟Ivoire and Haiti. Totaling US$ Case Study: the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Photo by ILRI 2 Photo by ILRI Photo by ILRI The WB‟s “Growth with Governance in the Mineral Sector” Project, THE WORLD BANK OED EVALUATION COUNTRY CASE STUDY SERIES FORESTRY Brazil Forests in the Balance: Challenges of Conservation with Development China From Afforestation to Poverty Alleviation and Natural Forest Management Costa Rica Forest Strategy and the Evolution of Land Use.
The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
With member countries, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership fighting poverty worldwide through sustainable solutions.